Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Cash and cash equivalents
The Company considers cash and cash equivalents to include all stable, highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less from the date of purchase.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
We have analyzed our revenue transactions pursuant to ASU 2014-09, Revenue, and there was no material impact due to the transition from ASC 605 to ASU 2014-09. Our revenues are recognized when control of the promised services is transferred to a customer, in an amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to receive in exchange for those services. In discussion with management, we apply the following five steps to determine the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as we fulfill our obligations under each of our agreements:
a) identify the contract with a customer;
b) identify the performance obligations in the contract;
c) determine the transaction price;
d) allocate the transaction price to performance obligations in the contract; and
e) recognize revenue as the performance obligation is satisfied.
Accounts receivable, net
Accounts receivable is reported at the customers outstanding balances, less any allowance for doubtful accounts. An allowance for doubtful accounts on accounts receivable is charged to operations in amounts sufficient to maintain the allowance for uncollectible accounts at a level management believes is adequate to cover any probable losses. Management determines the adequacy of the allowance based on historical write-off percentages and information collected from individual customers. Accounts receivable are charged off against the allowance when collectability is determined to be permanently impaired. Interest is not accrued on overdue accounts receivable.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment are stated at cost. Major renewals and improvements are charged to the asset accounts while replacements, maintenance and repairs that do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets are expensed. At the time property and equipment are retired or otherwise disposed of, the asset and related accumulated depreciation accounts are relieved of the applicable amounts. Gains or losses from retirements or sales are credited or charged to income.
Depreciation is computed on the straight-line and accelerated methods for financial reporting purposes based upon the following estimated useful lives:
The Company accounts for its long-lived assets in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 360-10-05, Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets. ASC Topic 360-10-05 requires that long-lived assets be reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the historical cost carrying value of an asset may no longer be appropriate. The Company assesses recoverability of the carrying value of an asset by estimating the future net cash flows expected to result from the asset, including eventual disposition. If the future net cash flows are less than the carrying value of the asset, an impairment loss is recorded equal to the difference between the assets carrying value and fair value or disposable value.
Beneficial Conversion Feature
If the conversion features of conventional convertible debt provide for a rate of conversion that is below market value, this feature is characterized as a beneficial conversion feature (BCF). We record a BCF as a debt discount pursuant to ASC Topic 470-20 Debt with Conversion and Other Options. In those circumstances, the convertible debt is recorded net of the discount related to the BCF and we amortize the discount to interest expense over the life of the debt using the effective interest method.
The Company determines if a convertible debenture should be accounted for as liability or equity under ASC 480, Liabilities - Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (ASC 480). ASC 480 applies to certain contracts involving a companys own equity and requires that issuers classify the following freestanding financial instruments as liabilities. Mandatorily redeemable financial instruments, obligations that require or may require repurchase of the issuers equity shares by transferring assets (e.g., written put options and forward purchase contracts), and certain obligations where at inception the monetary value of the obligation is based solely or predominantly on:
- A fixed monetary amount known at inception, for example, a payable settleable with a variable number of the issuers equity shares with an issuance date fair value equal to a fixed dollar amount,
- Variations in something other than the fair value of the issuers equity shares, for example, a financial instrument indexed to the S&P 500 and settleable with a variable number of the issuers equity shares, or
- Variations inversely related to changes in the fair value of the issuers equity shares, for example, a written put that could be net share settled.
If the entity determined the instrument meets the guidance under ASC 480 the instrument is accounted for as a liability with a respective debt discount. The Company records debt discounts in connection with raising funds through the issuance of promissory notes (see Notes 9, 10 and 11). These costs are amortized to non-cash interest expense over the life of the debt. If a conversion of the underlying debt occurs, a proportionate share of the unamortized amounts is immediately expensed.
Valuation of Derivative Instruments
ASC 815-40 requires that embedded derivative instruments be bifurcated and assessed, along with free-standing derivative instruments such as warrants, on their issuance date and in accordance with ASC 815-40-15 to determine whether they should be considered a derivative liability and measured at their fair value for accounting purposes. In determining the appropriate fair value, the Company uses the Binomial option pricing formula and present value pricing. At September 30, 2018, we adjusted our derivative liabilities to their fair value, and reflected the changes in fair value in our condensed statements of operations.
The Company accounts for stock-based payments to employees in accordance with ASC 718, Stock Compensation (ASC 718). Stock-based payments to employees include grants of stock, grants of stock options and issuance of warrants that are recognized in the statement of operations based on their fair values at the date of grant.
We account for stock-based payments to non-employees in accordance with ASC 505-50, Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees (ASC 505-50). Stock-based payments to non-employees include grants of stock, grants of stock options and issuances of warrants that are recognized in the statement of operations based on the value of the vested portion of the award over the requisite service period as measured at its then-current fair value as of each financial reporting date. The Company calculates the fair value of option grants and warrant issuances utilizing the Black-Scholes pricing model. The amount of stock-based compensation recognized during a period is based on the value of the portion of the awards that are ultimately expected to vest. ASC 718 requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time stock options are granted and warrants are issued to employees and non-employees, and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The term forfeitures is distinct from cancellations or expirations and represents only the unvested portion of the surrendered stock option or warrant.
We estimate forfeiture rates for all unvested awards when calculating the expense for the period. In estimating the forfeiture rate, the Company monitors both stock option and warrant exercises as well as employee termination patterns. The resulting stock-based compensation expense for both employee and non-employee awards is generally recognized as compensation under ASC Topic 505-50. In accordance with ASC 505-50, the cost of stock-based compensation is measured at the grant date based on the value of the award and is recognized over the vesting period. The value of the stock-based award is determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, whereby compensation cost is the excess of the fair value of the award as determined by the pricing model at the grant date or other measurement date over the amount that must be paid to acquire the stock.
Loss per share
We report earnings (loss) per share in accordance with ASC Topic 260-10, "Earnings per Share." Basic earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing income (loss) available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares available. Diluted earnings (loss) per share is computed similar to basic earnings (loss) per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the potential common shares had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. Diluted earnings (loss) per share is the same as loss per share since the effect of the assumed conversion of warrants and debt to purchase common shares would have an anti-dilutive effect. Potential common shares as of September 30, 2018 that have been excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share amounted to 2,814,439 shares comprised of 1,292,500 options and 1,521,939 warrants. At September 30, 2018, 762,500 of the 1,292,500 potential common shares that could be issued upon the exercise of the options had vested, and all 1,521,939 common shares that could be issued upon the exercise of the warrants had vested.
We account for income taxes under the provisions of Income Taxes (ASC 740). The method of accounting for income taxes under ASC 740 is an asset and liability method. The asset and liability method requires the recognition of deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between tax bases and financial reporting bases of other assets and liabilities. The Company did not recognize any deferred tax liabilities or assets at December 31, 2017 or during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 or September 30, 2017.
Fair value of financial instruments
We account for non-recurring fair value measurements of our non-financial assets and liabilities in accordance with ASC 820-10 Fair Value Measurement. This guidance defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and addresses required disclosures about fair value measurements. This standard establishes a three-level hierarchy for fair value measurements based upon the significant inputs used to determine fair value. Observable inputs are those which are obtained from market participants external to the Company while unobservable inputs are generally developed internally, utilizing managements estimates, assumptions and specific knowledge of the assets/liabilities and related markets. The three levels are defined as follows:
· Level 1 - Valuation is based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities.
· Level 2 - Valuation is determined from quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active, or by model-based techniques in which all significant inputs are observable in the market.
· Level 3 - Valuation is derived from model-based techniques in which at least one significant input is unobservable and based on the companys own estimates about the assumptions that market participants would use to value the asset or liability.
If the only observable inputs are from inactive markets or for transactions which the Company evaluates as distressed, the use of Level 1 inputs should be modified by the Company to properly address these factors, or the reliance of such inputs may be limited, with a greater weight attributed to Level 3 inputs.
Due to the short-term nature of our financial assets and liabilities, we consider their carrying amounts to approximate fair value.
Recent accounting pronouncements
The Company continually assesses any new accounting pronouncements to determine their applicability to the Company. Where it is determined that a new accounting pronouncement affects our financial reporting, we undertake a study to determine the consequence of the change to its financial statements and assures that there are proper controls in place to ascertain that our financials properly reflect the change.
In June 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2018-07 Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under the ASU, most of the guidance on such payments to nonemployees would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. The amendments in ASU 2018-07 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods therein. We are evaluating the impact adopting this guidance will have on our financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2017-04 Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (ASU 2017-04). This guidance removes Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test, which requires a hypothetical purchase price allocation. Under the amended guidance, a goodwill impairment charge will now be recognized for the amount by which the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, not to exceed the carrying amount of goodwill. This guidance is effective for interim and annual period beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted for any impairment tests performed after January 1, 2017. We are evaluating the impact adopting this guidance will have on our financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2017-01 Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business (ASU 2017-01), which clarifies the definition of a business and assists entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of assets or businesses. Under this guidance, when substantially all the fair value of gross assets acquired is concentrated in a single asset (or group of similar assets), the assets acquired would not represent a business. In addition, to be considered a business, an acquisition would have to include at a minimum an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create an output. The amended guidance also narrows the definition of outputs by more closely aligning it with how outputs are described in FASB guidance for revenue recognition. This guidance is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, with early adoption permitted. We are evaluating the impact adopting this guidance will have on our financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) ("ASU 2016-02"), which amends the existing accounting standards for lease accounting, including requiring lessees to recognize most leases with lease terms of greater than twelve months on their balance sheets. ASU 2016-02 will be effective for us beginning January 1, 2019. ASU 2016-02 requires a modified retrospective transition approach for all leases existing at, or entered into after, the date of initial application, with an option to use certain transition relief. We are evaluating the impact adopting this guidance will have on our financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), (ASU 2014-09). ASU 2014-09 requires entities to recognize revenue that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. We adopted ASU 2014-09 on January 1, 2018 using a modified retrospective method. As of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 the adoption of ASU 2014-09 did not have a material impact on our balance sheet, operations, stockholders' deficit or our statement of cash flows. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef